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Studiet af ​​psykologiske undersøgelser giver nyttig viden om, hvordan vi tænker og handler, som (håber vi) kan bruges til at gøre vores liv bedre. Men den opnåede viden kan også bruges til at manipulere mennesker. De forskellige former for psykologisk manipulation er normalt subliminale, hvilket betyder, at det finder sted uden, at den, der udsættes for dem, er bevidst opmærksom på deres brug. Jeg har berettet om disse teknikker før og vil fortsætte med at gøre det.

Mit mål er ikke at give dig værktøjer til at gøre grimme ting, men at gøre dig opmærksom på tricks, der måske kan bruges mod dig. Disse oplysninger er også bare interessante i sig selv. Så med det i tankerne er her, hvad du har brug for at vide (eller måske gerne vil vide) om kognitiv dissonans, og hvordan det bruges til psykologisk manipulation.

Kommentar: Delvist oversat af fra Psychological manipulation using cognitive dissonance

We prefer to be consistent with what we think we should be, and what we believe or say. It is uncomfortable to have hold two opposing beliefs. So when we're faced with inconsistency, we experience what psychologists call "cognitive dissonance," which is the stress resulting from holding two contradictory cognitions at once. Cognitions, in this context, can be a thoughts, attitudes, emotions, beliefs or behaviors.

For example, suppose a man thinks he's a nice person, but says something cruel to a woman he works with. That uncomfortable feeling he experiences is less about her being hurt as it is about violating his belief about himself as a nice man. This is cognitive dissonance, but the important point for our purposes is that he feels the need to resolve it (we all do). He can do so in a number of ways.

First, he could alter his belief, recognizing that he's not always nice. This is perhaps the least likely option to be chosen. Second, he can explain why she deserved it, thus making it her fault, not his. This is probably the most common way to resolve one's own self-doubt. He could blame it on other factors, telling himself he's only this way when tired, for example. The many psychological responses to cognitive dissonance are fascinating, but how are they used to manipulate a person?

The manipulator might start by getting people to say something about who they are or what they believe. He fashions his "sale's pitch" in such a way that by doing what he wants the prospect resolves any cognitive dissonance, or in such a way that any other choice causes the discomfort of inconsistency. By the way, this works whether he's actually selling a product, an idea, or just trying to persuade a man to take a particular action. Is this a dirty trick? Yes. Here's an example of how it could work...

Selling Something

A man enters a computer shop one evening and tells the salesman a little bit about what he's looking for. The salesman tells him about some new model that he will be selling in a couple weeks, but describes it in a way that makes the customer not want it. He finishes with a comment like, "But that won't be here for a couple weeks. You want something today, right?" If the man agrees, the salesman has his opening.

The idea is to get him to say something that can be used. He will feel uncomfortable acting in a way which contradicts what he has said. After he says something like, "Yes, I want to bring something home tonight," the salesman might now say, "Well, it's getting late for more shopping, so if you really want to get a stereo today, I think I have what you need right over here." The phrase, "if you really want to get a stereo today," reminds him of his words, influencing him to follow through on them.

Manipulating People Into a Commitment

Let's look at a non-monetary example. Suppose a woman is trying to organize a clean-up of a local park, and she's with friends who might help. Instead of asking directly, she steers the conversation to the trash in the park and lets them talk about it. Then she suggests, "We residents should do something about it, shouldn't we?" As soon as some of them agree, she asks each one which day they can volunteer a few hours to help out. The new volunteers just stated that they should do something, so it is tough to now say they shouldn't. Publicly stated beliefs and commitments are the most uncomfortable ones for a person to contradict or back out of.

Another way to use cognitive dissonance is to suggest something about a person that he can agree with, and then ask for a small commitment based on it. For example, to influence a man politically, the manipulator might start with, "Hi, you probably care about justice, so could I have just thirty seconds of your time?" In the man's mind he immediately agrees to the first part (caring about justice), so to be consistent he feels the need to grant the small request, due to the manipulator's subtle inference that if he cares, he will give him thirty seconds. This is just a first step, of course. Small commitments lead to larger ones.

In one study, reported in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, psychology students were asked to participate in research on thinking processes. One group was told beforehand that they would have to show up at 7:00 A.M. The second group was first asked if they would participate, and then told it would start at 7:00 A.M. Here are the results:

Group One (First told the research would start at 7:00 A.M.):
24% agreed to participate and showed up.

Group Two (First asked if they would participate and then told that they would start at 7:00 A.M.):
56% agreed, and 95% of them showed up, for an overall compliance rate of over 53% (95% of the 56%), more than twice that of the first group.

One obvious lesson is to mention the good stuff first when seeking a commitment. Afterwards, having agreed to something, people feel uneasy saying no, even if the new information makes them not want to continue.

Other research shows that any minor commitment makes people far more likely to make a larger one. If you first agree to watch your friend's dog for an hour, for example, you're more likely to later agree to care for him for a week (don't you hope your friend doesn't know these tricks?). This is true even though you never said you would watch him for a week. By watching him at all, you've created a concept of yourself as the "helpful friend who watches the dog," and you feel cognitive dissonance when thinking about denying the next request. It becomes psychologically easier to just say yes.

This is all very manipulative, at least when used consciously. I'm not recommending that you use these techniques (although we probably all use them to some extent subconsciously), and I think there are honest and rational ways to persuade others. But if these less-honest methods are being used on you, at least you might recognize that now.